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جنگل،زیباترین جلوه طبیعت (حفظ و نگهداری آن وظیفه همگانی است) - برآورد یک اشتباه تاریخی! دامداری سنتی اشتباه و دیم داری اشتباه! (قسمت اول)
جنگل،زیباترین جلوه طبیعت (حفظ و نگهداری آن وظیفه همگانی است)
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مدیر وبلاگ :علی امیدی
مطالب اخیر
نویسندگان

حدود شش و نیم میلیون نفر از جمعیت ایران دارای زندگی عشایری هستند که اکثر انها رمه گردان و یک پنجم آنها صرفا کوچ رو هستند.این جمعیت دارای اقتصاد معیشتی، وابستگی خاصی به دامداری سنتی دارند. دامداری سنتی، از قدیم الایام تا حال، در تقریبا 100 درصد از رویشگاه های دارای آب و علف ایران ایران سیطره داشته و دارد(یعنی حدود 60 تا 80 درصد مساحت خشک ایران).

در گذشته بدلیل وجود بیماریهای کشنده اپیدمی انسان و دام، با از بین رفتن قربانیان، خودبخود کاهش جمعیت، هرچند وقت یکبار اتفاق می افتاد. در نتیجه تعادل بین طبیعت و انسان و دام اهلی، برقرار می گردید. طی یک قرن اخیر روند قربانی گرفتن بیماریهای کشنده کنترل گردید. در نتیجه جمعیت های انسان و دام اهلی رو به فزونی نهاد. یک قاعده نانوشته در بین دامداران سنتی وجود دارد که دامداری سنتی(گله داری) برحسب توان اقتصادی صاحب دام انجام می گیرد، نه توان بیولوژیک چراگاه!. بنابراین هرجا که اجازه بدهد و یا بواسطه اقتصاد معیشتی، عواملی نظیر بیکاری،تامین درآمد سرانه، اشتغال و ..، دامداری سنتی رونق یافته، در نتیجه با خطر برداشت علوفه(چرام دام بیش از ظرفیت چراگاه)، خطر نابودی گیاهان علفی،بوته ای،درختچه ای و درختی بعنوان مهمترین تهدیدکننده نابودی مناطق رویشی ایران پدیدار می گردد. خصوصا در مناطق رویشی زاگرس، هیرکانی و ارسبارانی که نسل آینده جنگل بواسطه خورده شدن نهالها توسط دام، قدرت تجدید نسل خود را از دست داده اند.

با ازبین رفتن پوشش گیاهی، نابودی خاک و آب، دامن گیر کشور گردیده که متاسفانه حساسیت زیادی هم به این مسائل، علیرغم مشاهده معضلات برخواسته از ان نظیر سیل و ریزگردها نداریم. نمیدانم علت چیست؟ جهل و ندانستن است یا عادت به گذشته؟ شاید آنقدر در غرور داشتن گذشته خود غرق شده ایم که هرچه را از گذشته به ما به ارث رسیده را میخواهیم حفظ کنیم!. (اشاره فقط به چرای بی رویه دام است ولاغیر!). چاره کار چیست؟

چرا باید در برابر اقدامات جاهلانه خاموش بنشینیم و چرا مسئولین برنام ریز کشور اقدام عاجل نمی کنند؟

مسئله این است: کمتر از یک دهم جمعیت کشور  بدلیل دامداری سنتی، حدود 80 درصد مساحت کشور را به ورطه نابودی می کشانند. چرا عرصه های طبیعی کشور، جولانگاه بز و گوسفند شده و همه گیاهان خورده می شوند؟ چرا اختیار این همه سطح کشور در دست عده ای خاص است تا بلایای طبیعی به همه(نسل فعلی و نسلهای بعدی) کشور تحمیل شود؟ اگر بخواهیم مناطق رویشی طبیعی ایران را نجات دهیم باید تفکر قدیمی و معیشت بجا مانده از گذشتگان، یعنی دامداری سنتی را کنار بگذاریم.

چه خوب بود که طرح ساماندهی تبدیل دامداری سنتی به دامداری متمرکز و تلفیق زراعت، باغبانی و دامداری بسته با در نظر گرفتن اعتبار و بفوریت اجرا گردد.

به مسئولین و برنامه ریزان کشور پیشنهاد می کنم که که بین رویشگاه های طبیعی و دامداری سنتی، یکی را انتخاب کنند.





نوع مطلب : یادداشت ها و تحلیل های شخصی، 
برچسب ها : مناطق رویشی، دامداری سنتی، اقتصاد معیشتی، چرای دام، ریزگرد، سیل،
لینک های مرتبط :
          
جمعه 29 بهمن 1395
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